Wayne Peterson, a prolific composer whose fraught successful of the Pulitzer Prize in 1992 stirred debate about whether or not specialists or common listeners had been the most effective judges of music, died on April 7 in San Francisco. He was 93.
His son Grant confirmed the loss of life, in a hospital, which he mentioned got here simply seven weeks after that of Mr. Peterson’s companion of many years, Ruth Knier.
Mr. Peterson gained the Pulitzer for his composition “The Face of the Night, the Heart of the Dark,” however solely after the 19-member Pulitzer committee rejected the recommendation of the three-member music jury, which initially advisable that Ralph Shapey’s “Concerto Fantastique” obtain the prize.
The jury was made up of composers, who had the power to check the scores of works into consideration, whereas the committee members, principally journalists, had no explicit experience in music. The dust-up started when the jury submitted just one piece, Mr. Shapey’s, in its suggestion to the committee, quite than three candidates, as was conventional.
The committee despatched the advice again, demanding no less than yet one more identify. When the jury responded with Mr. Shapey’s work and Mr. Peterson’s, whereas indicating that Mr. Shapey’s work was its first alternative, the committee awarded the prize to Mr. Peterson as a substitute. The jurors responded with a sharply worded grievance that mentioned, partially, “Such alterations by a committee with out skilled musical experience ensures, if continued, a lamentable devaluation of this uniquely necessary award.”
The incident produced appreciable hand-wringing over whether or not specialists or a extra normal panel ought to decide the winner of the music prize, a difficulty the Pulitzers had confronted earlier than in different genres. The dispute was puzzling as a result of, as music critics for The New York Instances wrote within the aftermath, it was not essentially a case of Mr. Peterson’s work being extra listener-friendly than Mr. Shapey’s — each males wrote atonal works. Some writers instructed that the matter was merely the Pulitzer committee asserting its dominance over the jury.
In any occasion, the controversy left Mr. Peterson in an ungainly place, since he knew the jury members who had faulted the choice, and since he professed admiration for Mr. Shapey’s works.
“He would have been thrilled to get second place,” Grant Peterson mentioned.
“There was no dangerous blood,” he added. “It was simply form of a bummer as a result of it wasn’t of his making.”
Mr. Peterson himself acknowledged that the dispute left him with combined emotions.
“I had despatched the work in as a lark, and I didn’t suppose I had even a distant probability of successful,” he advised The Instances in 1992. “I’ve gained different awards, however the status of the Pulitzer is larger than that of the others. The controversy has made it slightly totally different. I simply hope the pall that it has forged won’t jeopardize what the Pulitzer may imply in serving to flow into my music.”
Grant Peterson mentioned that, in that regard, the episode proved to be a plus — the prize, he mentioned, did enhance his father’s identify recognition, and it introduced him extra profitable commissions.
Wayne Turner Peterson was born on Sept. 3, 1927, in Albert Lea, Minn. His father, Leslie, was “a sufferer of the Melancholy,” he advised The Related Press in 1992, who “bounced round from one factor to a different”; his mom, Irma (Turner) Peterson, died when he was younger, and he lived along with his grandmother after that, his son mentioned.
His musical skill, which he mentioned got here from his mom’s aspect of the household, manifested itself early.
“I grew to become very inquisitive about jazz piano and was an expert jazz musician from the age of 15 on,” he mentioned. “I put myself by school by enjoying jazz, by three levels on the College of Minnesota” — a bachelor’s, grasp’s and doctorate, all earned within the Nineteen Fifties.
He grew to become a professor of music at San Francisco State College in 1960, and taught composition there for greater than 30 years. He lived in San Francisco at his loss of life.
Mr. Peterson’s profession as a composer started in 1958 with the efficiency of his “Free Variations” by the Minnesota Orchestra. He composed for orchestras, chamber ensembles and different groupings, typically uncommon ones. “And the Winds Shall Blow,” which had its premiere in Germany in 1994, was described as a fantasy “for saxophone quartet, winds and percussion.” There was additionally his Duo for Viola and Violoncello.
“A nervous, successfully written piece, stuffed with darkish melodies properly suited to those decrease string devices, the duo builds to a quick and thrilling climax,” Michael Kimmelman wrote in The Instances when the work was carried out on the 92nd Road Y in 1988.
Mr. Peterson thought it necessary for a composer to take heed to others’ works, throughout a variety.
“I don’t restrict myself to anybody group of composers,” he advised The San Francisco Chronicle in 1991. “I attempt to take heed to all the things, and if I hear something I like, it will get distilled in my psyche and comes out someplace in my music.”
His love of jazz additionally discovered its method into his compositions, together with “The Face of the Evening, the Coronary heart of the Darkish.”
“There’s lots of syncopation you possibly can affiliate with jazz,” he mentioned of that work, “however this isn’t a jazz piece.”
It was given its premiere in October 1991 by the San Francisco Symphony. George Perle, the chairman of the Pulitzer jury that advisable the Shapely piece, took pains to reward Mr. Peterson’s composition even amid the controversy.
“It’s completely worthy of a Pulitzer Prize,” he mentioned in 1992. “However the Pulitzer Prize is meant to be for the one greatest work of the 12 months, and on this event we felt that there was a piece that was extra spectacular.”
Even Mr. Shapey, who died in 2002 and was identified for being outspoken, got here to view his missed prize with a contact of humor.
“A critic in Chicago began calling me ‘Ralph Shapey, the non-Pulitzer Prize winner,’” he told The Times in 1996. “They’ll need to put that on my tombstone.”
Mr. Peterson’s marriage to Harriet Christensen resulted in divorce within the Nineteen Seventies. Along with his son Grant, he’s survived by three different sons, Alan, Craig and Drew, and two grandchildren.
Grant Peterson mentioned that since his father’s loss of life he had been going by his papers and had been astonished at his productiveness — not simply his roughly 80 completed compositions, however the numerous fragments.
“There’s the stuff that’s sure and completed and revealed,” he mentioned, “however combined in with that’s the chicken-scratch on yellow tablets. The man was a music machine.”